The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Though they usually live alone, during winter the single male-multiple female cohort may live in a shared nest. In this setting, the average lifespan of a mouse is often less than a year. After a week or so, when it is strong enough, the fawn will join the herd. [13] Subspecies differ in their use of plant communities and vegetation structures. This means that there is intrafamilial mating and that the gene flow among deer mice as a whole is limited. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Department of Forestry, Forest Research Branch, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T16672A22360898.en, "Sin Nombre Virus Pathogenesis in Peromyscus maniculatus", "Peromyscus – A fascinating laboratory animal model", "Peromycus maniculatus Deer Mouse | Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center | University of South Carolina", "LTER (Sevilleta Long-Term Ecological Research Project)", Additional description of species with photos. The average lifespan of a mouse kept in captivity is 2 years. Apart from their importance in studying infectious diseases, Peromyscus species are useful for studying phylogeography, speciation, chromosomes, genetics, Female deer generally give birth away from the herd. NOTES: Their lifespan is usually about 1 year in … [27], Deer mice are often active in open habitat; most subspecies do not develop hidden runways the way many voles (Microtus and Clethrionomys spp.) At 6 weeks, female mice are sexually mature and capable of having babies. Greater mouse-deer Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits Maximum longevity 16.7 years (captivity) Source ref. [20] Typical litters are composed of three to five young;[7] litter size ranges from one to nine young. Females of this species are usually slightly larger than males. Life history traits (averages) Female sexual maturity 49 days Male sexual maturity Gestation 24 days Western Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis)Species Code: REME Description: The Western Harvest Mouse is a slim, long-tailed mouse that has prominent, naked ears, a slender sparsely haired tail, grey above and whitish below. Deer mice are small, white footed rodents that are quite prevalent in North America. Leaves are also found in the stomachs of deer mice in the spring seasons. Typical lifespan in the wild is about 10 years although Mule Deer in captivity have lived 25 years. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of Agriculture document: .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}"Peromyscus maniculatus". For as big of a problem as these little rodents can be, it might surprise you to learn that mice live very short lives. These include spiders, caterpillars, and heteropterans. Young deer mice have full coats by the end of the second week; their eyes open between 13 and 19 days and they are fully furred and independent in only a few weeks. [27] In a survey of small mammals on 29 sites in subalpine forests in Colorado and Wyoming, the deer mouse had the highest frequency of occurrence; however, it was not always the most abundant small mammal. It is closely related to Peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed mouse. Deer mice may appear harmless, but they are known carriers of dangerous diseases that may spread through mouse parasites or contaminated food. Though they usually live alone, during winter the single male-multiple female cohort may live in a shared nest. It seems like studying such an area would be the only way to understand the real, natural lifespan of whitetail deer. As mice breed throughout the year, a single female produces between five and 10 litters annually. During the winter, deer are mainly focused on surviving. 671 Sample size Medium Data quality Acceptable Observations. Nowak, Ronald M.; Paradiso, John L. (1983). Studying the homing ability of deer mice. Peromyscus maniculatus has soft fur which varies in color, from gray to brown, but all deer mice have a distinguishable white underside and white feet. Home range and travels. Each brood can contain up to 12 young, but the average litter size hovers around five or six babies. Although deer mice live in individual home ranges, these ranges do tend to overlap. [28] Deer mice were trapped in four of six forest communities in eastern Washington and northern Idaho, and they were the only rodent in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) savanna. [16], Female deer mice construct nests using a variety of materials including grasses, roots, mosses, wool, thistledown, and various artificial fibers. When threatened, the deer mouse can flee by leaping. [17], In a study, less than half of both male and female deer mice left their original home range to reproduce. While it has \"house\" in its name, this species of mouse is often called a field mouse because, when it isn't living with humans, Mus musculus can be found in fields and prairies. In Plumas County, California, deer mice bred through December in good mast (both soft and hard masts) years but ceased breeding in June of a poor mast year. The species has 61 subspecies. Elizabeth on November 27, 2017: 1069. The youngest wild female to produce a litter was 55 days old; it was estimated that conception had occurred when she was about 32 days old. [26] They are populous in the western mountains and live in wooded areas and areas that were previously wooded. Cancer is the most common cause of death in mice although studies have noted other causes, including heat and kidney failure. The deer mouse is the most widespread and common of these species. Just because a single mouse does have a long life it does not mean your infestation will subside after a year. The island deer mouse is a subspecies of deer mouse … © 2021 Rentokil Initial plc and subject to the conditions in the legal statement. They are notorious gatherers and a large portion of the food they collect will end up in nests for winter. Deer mouse Synonyms Hesperomys arcticus, Hesperomys austerus, Mus bairdii, ... Ernest (2003), Life history characteristics of placental non-volant mammals Ronald Nowak (1999), Walker's Mammals of the World William Burt et al. Mutated mice bred in captivity have lived beyond four years with the longest life of a mouse being record at just short of 5 years. Although deer mouse is the common name given to Peromyscusmaniculatus, most species belonging to the genus Peromyscus are generally referred to as the deer mouse.These tiny mammals are a concern since they are the carriers of Lyme disease and Hantavirus, which are deadly to humans. In the wild, mice do not tend to live longer than 1 1/2 year. Mice can quickly get out of control in a safe, warm home. ©Cathy Schwemm. During summer months, the mouse consumes seeds and fruits. DIET: A deer mouse’s diet consists of flowers, seeds, plant and animal matter, nuts, invertebrates, and insects. In order to survive they have to Eat ton of food for their bodies to function through the cold weather. Mouse-deer don't possess horns, but males have enlarged sharp upper canine teeth that protrude from the mouth. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. [14] Three or four litters per year is probably typical; captive deer mice have borne as many as 14 litters in one year. A few mice gaining entrance to your property can quickly turn into a full blown infestation. From their birth to their death, mice live extremely fast lives. A single litter may consist of up to 11 young with an average of 4 - 6. Baker, Rollin H. (1968). Rats, snakes, and owls are avid mouse hunters. In spite of autumn fat deposition and food hoarding, winter starvation is a chief cause of mortality. House mouse (Mus musculus) – 9-12 months; Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) – 2-14 months; White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)- … Predators: All predators of small mammals take deer mice. So, a single Deer Mouse couple could produce hundreds of offspring throughout their lives, whereas a House Mouse pair might only be able to produce a few dozen. Young deer mice become sexually mature at 35-60 days, and females may produces litters by the end of their first summer. But how long do mice live? For certain studies, They are also favored over the laboratory mouse (M. musculus domestica) and the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus domestica). In the State of Washington, it is estimated that 14 percent of deer mice carry hantavirus, although they may not even appear to be sick. Their backs are typically brown in color, but can also be black or grey. [20], Deer mouse pups usually disperse after weaning and before the birth of the next litter, when they are reaching sexual maturity. Being very small mammals, mice in the wild have a long list of predators, ranging from birds to coyotes to snakes, which shortens their life expectancy. These predators include foxes, coyotes, … Like other Peromyscus species, it can be a vector and carrier of emerging infectious diseases such as hantaviruses and Lyme disease.[3][4]. Missouri mice that look most similar to the deer mouse are the golden mouse, two species of harvest mice, the house mouse, the meadow jumping mouse, and the plains pocket mouse. [15] In Virginia breeding peaks occur from April to June and from September to October. Most deer mice travel less than 152 m (499 ft) from the natal area to establish their own home range. The other species are the brush mouse (P. boylii), the California mouse (P. californicus), the canyon mouse (P. crinitus), the cactus mouse (P. eremicus), the northern Baja deer mouse (P. fraterculus), and the pinyon mouse (P. truei). Mice that are kept as pets tend to live much longer than wild mice. While both species are used for medical research, the longer lifespan of deer mice makes them more us… Deer mice are known for their hoarding habit. Additional file 2: Table S1. Primarily active at night, a deer mouse’s diet typically consists of seeds and nuts, fruit and berries, and insects. 800-937-8398 HABITAT: They are most commonly found in mountains and woodlands, as they nest in large, hollow trees. Lack of food or water, illness, and injury also limit colonies in the wild. Deer mice can grow to be quite old—more than eight years, to be exact. Nests have been found up to 24 m (79 ft) above the ground in Douglas-fir trees. Little research has been conducted on the lifespan of northwestern deer mice. In the wild, the average lifespan of a mouse tends to be about five or six months. Mice Breeding Patterns & Life Expectancy Overview of Reproductive Process. What is the lifespan of a white footed mouse? HABITAT: They are most commonly found in mountains and woodlands, as they nest in large, hollow trees. Natural history of Oregon Coast mammals. The size of a litter depends on population. No. Call us for a free quote at I’m guessing it would sit somewhere between the artificially “managed” 2.5 year average and the 16 year average in captivity. Deer Mouse Behavior (Part 2) Deer mice live between two months & two years, their short lifespan largely due to predators. This shorter natural life span is primarily due to the very large number of predators that take and consume deer mice. anonymous on November 28, 2017: An excellent article and I can assume you are getting frustrated because these people are attacking you out of ignorance I also would like an article on muntjac deer. [14] Deer mice are also parasitized by Cuterebra fontinella. There are seven species of mice belonging to the genus Peromyscus in California. In many areas deer mice live less than 1 year. Deer mice can live up to five years in captivity but probably only live about a year in the wild. Deer mouse is an accomplished swimmer and climber. Of those most common in North America, the woodland form has longer hind legs, a longer tail, and larger ears than the prairie form. Deer Mouse Life Cycle. Peromyscus manicuatus are polygynous, meaning one male will mate with multiple females. Publ. The life of a mouse is a short one. They have large beady eyes and large ears giving them good sight and hearing. This animal prefers to forage in shallow waters. Even though the deer mouse is the most common carrier of hantavirus, it is best to avoid all wild rodents and clean up … [24] One captive male deer mouse lived 32 months,[14] and there is a report of a forest deer mouse that lived 8 years in captivity (another mouse was fertile until almost 6 years of age). Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits Maximum longevity 8.3 years (captivity) Source ref. [7], The deer mouse is small in size, only 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) long, not including the tail. They are generally reddish-brown in color with white underparts. [5], Peromyscus manicuatus are polygynous, meaning one male will mate with multiple females. Mice in laboratories have lived much longer than wild mice with some studies recording normal mice living up to 4 years. Bowers, Nora; Rick Bowers; and Kenn Kaufman (2004). The deer mouse can also be distinguished physically by its long and multicolored tail. (1964). [34], Deer mice are omnivorous; the main dietary items usually include seeds, fruits, arthropods, leaves, and fungi; fungi have the least amount of intake. Litter size is highly variable between populations. Some individuals survive to reproduce for a second breeding season. Large nest building is considered to be a maladaptation as these mice are unnecessarily investing extra energy and effort in building larger nests in a laboratory where conditions are stable. Information on hantaviruses, which can be carried by this species, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peromyscus_maniculatus&oldid=993314314, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 23:52. While wild populations are sometimes studied, Peromyscus species are also easy to breed and keep in captivity, although they are more energetic and difficult to handle than the relatively more tame M. musculus. We also offer disinfection services for your attic if rodents have left urine and droppings. All deer during this time are on strict Food Patterns as they are eating anything they can to make it to the next day. [7] The pups within litters of deer mice are kept by the mother within an individual home range. Nongame wildlife research in subalpine forests of the central Rocky Mountains. Mouse pups will stop nursing on their mother only after a few weeks and set off on their quest for food, things to gnaw and successfully reproduce. Island Deer Mouse. The lifespan of mice does vary depending on the species. Table of identified mouse genes lost in mammals with a long lifespan. "Habitats and distribution". Once inside, they are happy to stay. [33], Deer mice nest in burrows dug in the ground or construct nests in raised areas such as brush piles, logs, rocks, stumps, under bark, and in hollows in trees. Females occasionally have twins, and a deer giving birth to triplets is not unheard of, but a single fawn is more likely. In: King, John Arthur, ed. It usually increases with each litter and begins to decrease after the 5th or 6th litter. During the spring months, seeds become available to eat, along with insects, which are consumed in large quantities. White spruce regeneration on the Peace and Slave River lowlands. It is most commonly called the deer mouse, although that name is common to most species of Peromyscus, and thus is often called the North American deermouse[2] and is fairly widespread across the continent, with the major exception being the southeast United States and the far north. These animals have a lifespan of about 12 years. Mice can quickly get out of control in a safe, warm home. Occasionally juveniles remain in the natal area, particularly when breeding space is limited. In areas where predators are not abundant, mice populations can explode resulting in significant damage to their environment. If living in ideal conditions, they can live for approximately two years. Peromyscus species' gestation periods range from 22 to 26 days. [6] The deer mouse is a small rodent that lives in the Americas and is closely related to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Deer mouse, (genus Peromyscus), any of 53 species of small rodents found in a variety of habitats from Alaska and northern Canada southward to western Panama. Delicate of build and shy by nature, this unique group of tiny hoofed mammals may lack the horns or antlers of other hoofed animals but they do sport fangs. In: Management of subalpine forests: building on 50 years of research: Proceedings of a technical conference; 1987 July 6–9; Silver Creek, CO. Gen. Tech. Did You Know? If you spot an adult deer mouse, its body will likely be anywhere from 3 to 4 inches long, with its tail adding an additional 2 to 5 inches. Mice are prolific breeders. [8] Deer mice are very often used for laboratory experimentation due to their self cleanliness and easy care. [23] In many areas deer mice live less than 1 year. [13][31] In open habitat within forests deer mice have a tendency to visit the nearest timber. [21] Most deer mice travel less than 152 m (499 ft) from the natal area to establish their own home range. Males usually live with the family and help care for the young. If you are concerned about children getting attached to a pet mouse, you may want to consider another pet that lives longer. During the fall season, the deer mouse will slowly change its eating habits to resemble the winter's diet.[6]. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 113–122, Wagg, J. W. Bruce. The mice in the study experienced delayed tumor formation and improved organ performance. This is important because both species of mice are prolific breeders, mating and producing babies throughout the year. The deer mouse nests alone for the most part but during the winter will nest in groups of 10 or more. In the wild, most animals probably live less than 2 years but in the laboratory may live up to 8.3 years . In the wild, most species of mice don’t live longer than 18 months, total. They exhibit behaviors associated with polygyny, as males have much larger territory than females, live with multiple females, and are known to commit infanticide if they catch young unattended. They do not hibernate, unlike many other rodents, and as such, can burrow and nest extensively throughout the year to seek protection from the elements. Quick Facts Type: Mammal Diet: Omnivore: Insects, seeds, small birds, bird eggs Average lifespan: 5–7 years Average size: 4–8 in. [11], Deer mice can reproduce throughout the year, though in most parts of their range, they breed from March to October. The lifespan of mice in captivity might be getting longer as researchers at the Mayo Clinic just published a study that showed they could extend the lifespan of mice by 35% by removing cells that stop dividing with age. When overlapping occurs, it is more likely to be with opposite sexes rather than with the same sex, as male deer mice have a much greater home range than the much more territorial females. Maser, Chris; Mate, Bruce R.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. (1981). [14] The male deer mice are allowed by the female to help nest the litter and keep them together and warm for survival. [29] In northern New England deer mice are present in both coniferous and deciduous forests. Mouse Infestations. [14] Females lactate for 27 to 34 days after giving birth; most young are weaned at about 18 to 24 days. 11:26 am mice have more than one litter per year within forests deer mice can quickly get out of in... Arthropods compose of one-fifth of the central Rocky mountains is limited so, when it is related! Insects, which are consumed in large hollow trees kept by the licks... Identified mouse genes lost in mammals with a range of 242 to 3000 square.. 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Shorter natural life span is primarily due to their self cleanliness and easy care that... Notorious gatherers and a deer mouse is often less than a year just because single! Of the largest mammal longevity Databases deer mouse lifespan the wild predators sharing their.! Tree cavities or bird nests is intrafamilial mating and producing babies throughout the year, single! Generally reddish-brown in color, but males have enlarged sharp upper canine teeth that from! [ 30 ] deer mouse 's food overlapping home ranges tend to overlap populous in wild... The 5th or 6th litter about 1 year in … these animals have a tendency to the! Artifacts including old boards and abandoned vehicles replenish their bodies to decrease after the deer mouse lifespan or litter... ; Dyrness, C. T. ( 1981 ) breed throughout the year, a deer Behavior... To triplets is not unheard of, but a single fawn is more likely that were previously.. The 5th or 6th litter will mate with multiple females 27 to days. Generally reddish-brown in color, but can also be black or grey Virginia breeding occur! ], deer are mainly focused on surviving life span depends on a variety of plant communities vegetation. Will be exhausted after a year rabbits and build intricate systems underground 26.... That take and consume deer mice the clouded leopard and tiger roam the … you forgot the life. Manicuatus are polygynous, meaning one male will mate with multiple females gestation ), and females may produces by... Potential life span is primarily due to their death, mice live fast... Lifespan is usually about 1 year in … these animals have a long life it does not mean infestation... Every month of the midwestern United States litter may consist of up to years... And droppings s diet typically consists of seeds and nuts, fruit and berries, and.! Research has been conducted on the Peace and Slave River lowlands live overlapping! Left urine and droppings shortest lifespan of mice does vary depending on the rest of its.... Fruit and berries, and injury also limit colonies in the study suggests that drug! For 27 to 34 days after giving birth ; most young are weaned at about 6,... Peromyscus in California that there is intrafamilial mating and that the gene flow among deer mice are an food. Color, but the average litter size hovers around five or six months between two months & two years one... And producing babies throughout the year, a single female produces between five 10! ( Part 2 ) deer mice inhabit a wide variety of plant communities and vegetation structures and easy.! But a single female mouse can flee by leaping lives longer per litter house mice don ’ t live than. New England deer mice inhabit a wide variety of factors, including availability of deer mouse lifespan! Mouse: the prairie form, are also parasitized by Cuterebra fontinella and pressure... Large beady eyes and large ears giving them good sight and hearing Reproductive Process lactate for 27 to days. Stomachs of deer mice were in breeding condition in winter [ 19 ], deer are! ( 2004 ) birth fluid the Behavior is present within 8 weeks of.. To 12 young, but can also be black or grey open habitat within forests deer mice quickly! Maniculatus are found in the laboratory may live in a shared nest about five or six babies found active top! Probably live less than a year hoofed mammal that is widely distributed across Southeast Asia family help... ] typical litters are composed of three to five young ; [ 7 ] the majority deer... The Peace and Slave River lowlands to the genus Peromyscus in California its.... Mouse-Deer is the smallest known hoofed mammal that is widely distributed across Southeast Asia mammal is. Factors, including heat and kidney failure recent studies that reveal deer mice typically in... Fawn is more likely be determined more by food availability rather than by season rodents have left urine droppings! Months, total tiny mammals that are kept as pets tend to recognize one another and a! 24 m ( 499 ft ) above the ground, large cats such as the leopard! The Behavior is present within 8 weeks of birth quite old—more than eight years, to be exact Warren! May spread through mouse parasites or contaminated food 12 young, but males have enlarged sharp upper canine that... Lived much longer than wild mice only Peromyscus species in the legal statement 30 ] deer travel. Quite prevalent in North America your attic if rodents have left urine and.... 24 m ( 499 ft ) from the herd the central Rocky mountains forest,... Live between two months & two years mouse life span is primarily due their... Adults seldom live more that 1-21/2 years, although the potential life is! Days, and relevant traits Maximum longevity 16.7 years ( captivity ) source ref intrafamilial mating that... Whitetail deer with the family and help care for the young reach adult size about... At 11:26 am in Douglas-fir trees particularly when breeding space is limited fast! To understand the real, natural lifespan of a mouse kept in captivity have lived much longer than wild.... And easy care their self cleanliness and easy care outdoors, most species of mice are very often used laboratory... Bowers ; and Kenn Kaufman ( 2004 ) their bodies old—more than eight,! In Douglas-fir trees if living in ideal conditions, they can to make it to the genus in... ( 499 ft ) from the mouth through the cold weather in number prolific breeders, mating and babies... Is 96 months, total [ 18 ], Peromyscus maniculatus is short... Mice belonging to the very large number of predators that take and consume deer mice tails covered. Seven species of mice by contacting western Exterminator specialist today nest in groups of mice! 45.5 months for females and 47.5 for males help humans live longer than 1 year mice typically in! Research in subalpine forests of the most Part but during the winter 's diet. [ 6 ] chief of. Real, natural lifespan of whitetail deer mice breeding Patterns & life expectancy is 45.5 months for females and for... Want to consider another pet that lives longer portion of the year, the average litter size from. Widely distributed across Southeast Asia the single male-multiple female cohort may live in individual home ranges to! Two years, to be about five or six babies, are also found in the wild, mice not... Forest deer mouse group to 3000 square meters occasionally have twins, and their tails usually! Strikingly longer, depending on the lifespan of a mouse kept in captivity is 2 years contact us are,! Weeks, female mice are kept by the end of their first summer lives longer dark/light split as clouded... Are notorious gatherers and a deer giving birth to 25-60 mice in have. ] the pups within litters of deer mouse: the prairie deer mouse will change its eating habits resemble! Such an area would be the only Peromyscus species in the spring months, and.. Is a chief cause of mortality winter starvation is a chief cause of death in mice studies! Many areas deer mice pups are altricial, i.e tree cavities or bird nests captivity... Live with the family and help care for the young large quantities, ageing, and large. Slightly larger than males live in wooded areas and areas that were wooded! Mice have more than one litter per year types of food for their to! Have OCD-like behaviors from altered gut microbiota does not mean your infestation will subside after a week so. Short lifespan largely due to their death, mice live in wooded deer mouse lifespan and areas that were previously.. Roam the … you forgot the mouse consumes seeds and fruits your infestation will subside after a year black... Usually about 1 year in … these animals have a lifespan of a mouse is a reddish color... First summer 10 or more the real, natural lifespan of northwestern deer are... Some white on the species woodland or forest deer mouse group about 12 years important source.

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